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Increase size of available 2T space.


Myatu
17-02-2014, 22:29
Quote Originally Posted by Thelen
Also:
tune2fs -m 0 /dev/RAIDDEVICE

to remove 10% root reserved space.
You might want to read into why there's a reserved space, before recommending to remove it...

NeddySeagoon
17-02-2014, 15:13
Thelen,

Thats OK until root is really full, than there is no space for logs and lock files. The system just locks up.
its the sort of thing you only do once

Leave a 100Mb or so on /, reserved for root, especially if normal users can write there because say /home is on /

LinuxGam
17-02-2014, 13:48
I took a look at the site and I agree it has a clean professional feel, which is great! No one these days wants a site with background noises and animated GIFs :-) However, the drop down menus are terrible...... There is no padding on the arrows and the text often oversteps the menu width.... it is probably configurable in CSS and at the worst tweaking the Javascript. I look at the customer brands at the bottom and think I trust this site... then look at the menus and feel like my Spectrum 48K has crashed again. Not trying to be harsh as you have done a great job, but for a pretty nice looking site you just broke a lot of confidence with something that is prob easy to fix.

Thelen
17-02-2014, 12:28
Also:
tune2fs -m 0 /dev/RAIDDEVICE

to remove 10% root reserved space.

Jasgriff
16-01-2014, 00:18
/\
|
|
I backup everyday

NeddySeagoon
15-01-2014, 21:57
westerndavid,

You only need a /home partition for thoese times when you want to reinstall but keep all of your settings and data when you repartition and reinstall.
You have read my signature and you do keep validated backups don't you?
Restoring from backup is the other option.

Installing a remote system can be a very painful process. It doesn't boot, root didn't mount read/write, so you have no logs.
You don't have console access either, so it gets harder.

Practice on a local sysem. A VirtualBox local system is fine.

westerndavid
14-01-2014, 18:34
Hi Jasgriff,
Thanks, I did put site together myself over time and have been learning loads as I go. Thanks for the tip regarding the menus, I think I must have overlooked that, and i'll fix it as you suggest.
Again cheers and thanks.

Jasgriff
14-01-2014, 08:14
However if you put that site together then you did a great job it looks clean.

I did notice something that could make a tiny improvement though.

On your drop down menu under what we do you have other services and core services. These then move to another sub menu with other options. When you click on core services and other services they have blank pages linked to them. I would remove the ability to click on them so that your visitors have to pick one of the sub menu options.

Hope that makes sense. Nice to see some of the forum vets still passionate about helping people out.

westerndavid
14-01-2014, 03:09
Thank you all for your replies Myatu, NeddySeagoon and jurn, I haven't really used a forum before and I have been amazed by the excellent support and detailed answer's you have given and your time to think about this stuff trying to help me. Thanks
I need to think carefully re next steps...however you folks have given me hope, cheers
David
www.firsteclipse.co.uk (as you may see server knowledge is not something I know anything about)

NeddySeagoon
13-01-2014, 20:28
westerndavid,
You have
Code:
Number Start End Size File system Name Flags
1 20.5kB 1049kB 1029kB primary bios_grub
2 2097kB 21.0GB 21.0GB ext3 primary raid
3 21.0GB 21.5GB 536MB linux-swap(v1) primary
4 21.5GB 2000GB 1979GB ext3 primary raid
Keep partition 1 but remove the rest
Make swap as 512Mb. If you need more swap than that, you actually need more real RAM.
Make a partition for root that is about half the remainder ... that's huge, about 1Tb
Make a partition for /home about 512G and leave the rest of the space unpartitioned. You can always allocate it later and move your data around.

Partitioning is something you only learn with practice. The above will get you going.

K.Kode
13-01-2014, 11:30
If it's a blank system why not just reinstall and partition the drive(s) as required from the manager?

westerndavid
13-01-2014, 00:22
It not only makes my head hurt I think I need to lie down in a darkened room :-)

Dear NS it takes me about 12 hours to really understand what you have said, not because you are being difficult, more because I am totally new to this so each line of text you write is a new subject for me to learn, I am 50years old have succeeded in a few areas of life, computers (linux etc) is a new domain (pardon the pun)
I do want to thank you for your help, you have been brilliant.
I am very very unlikely to use 2Tb, if I use 25% in the next 12months I would be surprised. Uncertain how to proceed except time for some snoring, thanks mate

Myatu
13-01-2014, 00:19
Quote Originally Posted by westerndavid
I am unsure how to allocate the space, the options are given as follows.
Type File System Mount point Raid Size Add a partition
1 primary ext3 / 1 20000 MB Edit Delete
2 primary ext3 /home 1 0 MB Edit Delete
3 primary swap swap 1 512 MB Edit Delete
Create the first partition for /boot, and give it about 250 MB. Then create a root (/) partition and finally your swap (roughly I calculate swap as 1/4th the size of RAM). No need to create the /home partition, unless you're planning to use it as a desktop or use something like cPanel.

NeddySeagoon
12-01-2014, 23:23
westerndavid,

If you are going to reinstall, there is another option. It will probably take you further out of your comfort zone and make your head hurt.
Its called Logical Volume Manager (LVM). You make only two partitions. One for grub and your boot things and the remainder of the drive for everything else.
Add raid1 if you want to.

Now you donate the large partition/raid set to LVM and divide it up into logical volumes. A Logical Volume is much like a partition, except you can grow it and the filesystem on it dynamically. In this case, unallocated space within LVM is a good thing.
Shrinking a filesystem and the LV that holds it is possible but more difficult than adding unallocated to a LV.

Without knowing how what you will install where, advising on partitioning is difficult.
Code:
  --- Logical volume ---
  LV Path                /dev/vg/var
  LV Name                var
  VG Name                vg
  LV UUID                lPqpOK-Ps1H-WKmD-9cqa-PDsb-r31i-KDSKEt
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time , 
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                59.00 GiB
  Current LE             15104
  Segments               3
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  - currently set to     256
  Block device           253:12
Notice the Segments 3. That means I've added space to /dev/vg/var twice since it was created.

A remote install can be difficult to get right and make work. If you have some spare space on a local box, the Operating System doesn't matter, practice in VirtualBox. You won't really need all 2Tb will you?

westerndavid
12-01-2014, 22:36
Thanks for all your detailed and brilliant reply...I am thinking this takes me way out of my comfort zone and as I am just beginning to set this server up to host 4 of my own websites (currently elsewhere) it might make more sense just to start again from the reinstall option, but yet again I am unsure how to allocate the space, the options are given as follows.
Type File System Mount point Raid Size Add a partition
1 primary ext3 / 1 20000 MB Edit Delete
2 primary ext3 /home 1 0 MB Edit Delete
3 primary swap swap 1 512 MB Edit Delete

what would be the best configuration to make use of the fill 2 T disk(s)

I do appreciate all the advice give so far, I am just wondering if you think this option might be a better idea as it just a couple of clicks away? what is your advice, thanks

David

NeddySeagoon
12-01-2014, 19:36
westerndavid,

My post above is pretty much like a reinstall - there is a middle way too.
As root, run
Code:
du -d1 /
We are looking to see how much space is used in the top level directories.
/var and /tmp are candidates for becoming their own partitions.
My /var is 4373472 /var, which is 4.3G
That would free up 4.3G on root if il were moved to its own, say 10G partition, where it would have room to double in size.

NeddySeagoon
12-01-2014, 14:15
westerndavid,
Here is the information we need. Both sda and sdb have identical partiion tables so I'll only quote one.
Code:
Number Start End Size File system Name Flags
1 20.5kB 1049kB 1029kB primary bios_grub
2 2097kB 21.0GB 21.0GB ext3 primary raid
3 21.0GB 21.5GB 536MB linux-swap(v1) primary
4 21.5GB 2000GB 1979GB ext3 primary raid
The errors are informatinal, and can safely be ignored.
What your partition table tells is that you have no unpartioned space, so making say /var its own partition is not an option.
To grow a partition, yon need free space physically at the end of the partition you want to grow.
The Raid1 adds to the complexity too.

The simple response is to back up /home elsewhere, then reinstall.
There is another more complex response - you should still back up /home because if things go wrong, you will need the backup.

Having raid1 means you have two copies of everything. One on sda, the other on sdb, the idea being that your system can operate on one drive if the other fails. You can take advantage of this to repartition 'on the fly'

The steps are, look in /proc/mdstat to see the names of your raid set and their members. I get
Code:
$ cat /proc/mdstat 
Personalities : [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] 
md127 : active raid5 sda6[0] sdd6[3] sdc6[2] sdb6[1]
      2912833152 blocks level 5, 64k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]
      
md126 : active raid5 sda5[0] sdd5[3] sdc5[2] sdb5[1]
      15759360 blocks level 5, 64k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]
      
md125 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdd1[3] sdc1[2] sdb1[1]
      40064 blocks [4/4] [UUUU]
Choose one drive and use mdadm to fail all of the raid members on say sdb.
Use mdadm to remove the failed raid members from the raid sets.
At this point, your box is running on one drive and your raid sets are in degraded mode. Look in /proc/mdstat to make sure you have done it properly.
The failed drive hasn't really failed but its no longer in use.
Repartition the failed drive to your liking
Use mdadm to make some new raid sets in degraded mode. You cannot reuse tho old /dev/mdX numbers as they are in use.
Make filesystems on your mew degraded raid sets
Copy your data from the old to the new raid sets. This step is more difficult than it sounds if you are still running the box from its own install.
You must not copy /proc, /dev, or /sys.
Now you have the old degraded raid' and the new degraded raid both populated with data.
Fix the /etc/fstab in the new raid to refer to the new degraded raid.

Your CentOS uses grub2, which I have managed to avoid so far but grub needs to be updated to be able to boot the new install and if you use an initramfs, it may need to be updated to assemble the new raid set. I'm a Gentoo guy so I don't know the internals of CentOS.
Once thats fixed roboot into your new degraded raid and look around. If all is well, repartition the drive with the old raid to be identical to the new one.
Use mdadm to add the partitions to the new degraded raids. The kernel will sync the data.

You may need to fix grub and the initramfs so they know the old system has gone for good.
Wait for the sync to finish and reboot to test.

This is almost the same process as you would use to replace a faild drive.

westerndavid
12-01-2014, 02:47
here is the print all as suggested by 'Jurn' thanks,,,, i see there is an error that i entered ignore...some thing to worry about or not?

parted /dev/sda
GNU Parted 2.1
Using /dev/sda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) print all
Model: ATA HGST HUS724020AL (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 2000GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt

Number Start End Size File system Name Flags
1 20.5kB 1049kB 1029kB primary bios_grub
2 2097kB 21.0GB 21.0GB ext3 primary raid
3 21.0GB 21.5GB 536MB linux-swap(v1) primary
4 21.5GB 2000GB 1979GB ext3 primary raid


Model: ATA HGST HUS724020AL (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 2000GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt

Number Start End Size File system Name Flags
1 20.5kB 1049kB 1029kB primary bios_grub
2 2097kB 21.0GB 21.0GB ext3 primary raid
3 21.0GB 21.5GB 536MB linux-swap(v1) primary
4 21.5GB 2000GB 1979GB ext3 primary raid


Error: /dev/md0: unrecognised disk label
Warning: Error fsyncing/closing /dev/md0: Input/output error
Retry/Ignore? i

Model: Unknown (unknown)
Disk /dev/md2: 21.0GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop

Number Start End Size File system Flags
1 0.00B 21.0GB 21.0GB ext3


Model: Unknown (unknown)
Disk /dev/md4: 1979GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: loop

Number Start End Size File system Flags
1 0.00B 1979GB 1979GB ext3


Error: /dev/nbd0: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd1: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd2: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd3: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd4: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd5: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd6: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd7: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd8: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd9: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd10: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd11: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd12: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd13: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd14: unrecognised disk label

Error: /dev/nbd15: unrecognised disk label

jurn
11-01-2014, 19:19
at the (parted) prompt, enter in "print all" so we can see your partitions..

westerndavid
11-01-2014, 17:01
Quote Originally Posted by NeddySeagoon
westerndavid,

We all had to start sometime.

Code:
WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.
means what it says. fdisk has shown the protective MSDOS partition table. We need to see the real partition table, for that you must use parted.
Code:
parted /dev/sda
will get you started.

How you grow root depends on how your HDD are partitioned. Looking at
Code:
rootfs 20G 11G 7.9G 58% /
/dev/md4 1.8T 4.0G 1.7T 1% /home
you probably don't have any unpartioned space.

Growing a partition and the filesysem it contains is risky and generally, not the right solution to the problem of filling up root.
More later, after we have seen what parted has to say about yor HDD.
thanks for your help, very much appreciated...
this is what the parted command returned...

# parted /dev/sda
GNU Parted 2.1
Using /dev/sda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted)

NeddySeagoon
11-01-2014, 14:31
westerndavid,

We all had to start sometime.

Code:
WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.
means what it says. fdisk has shown the protective MSDOS partition table. We need to see the real partition table, for that you must use parted.
Code:
parted /dev/sda
will get you started.

How you grow root depends on how your HDD are partitioned. Looking at
Code:
rootfs 20G 11G 7.9G 58% /
/dev/md4 1.8T 4.0G 1.7T 1% /home
you probably don't have any unpartioned space.

Growing a partition and the filesysem it contains is risky and generally, not the right solution to the problem of filling up root.
More later, after we have seen what parted has to say about yor HDD.

westerndavid
11-01-2014, 13:28
I am VERY green and just starting out with linux server cents 6.4 with cpanel

how do i grow the size of roots, /dev/root etc? Many thanks to anyone who can help me.
# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs 20G 11G 7.9G 58% /
/dev/root 20G 11G 7.9G 58% /
devtmpfs 24G 484K 24G 1% /dev
/dev/md4 1.8T 4.0G 1.7T 1% /home
tmpfs 24G 0 24G 0% /dev/shm
/dev/loop0 485M 11M 449M 3% /tmp
/dev/loop0 485M 11M 449M 3% /var/tmp


also fdisk -l

WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sda'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


Disk /dev/sda: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 243202 1953514583+ ee GPT

WARNING: GPT (GUID Partition Table) detected on '/dev/sdb'! The util fdisk doesn't support GPT. Use GNU Parted.


Disk /dev/sdb: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 1 243202 1953514583+ ee GPT

Disk /dev/md4: 1978.9 GB, 1978886193152 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 483126512 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000


Disk /dev/md2: 21.0 GB, 20970405888 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 5119728 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000